Key implications of a post-2020 perspective:

  1. By 2020, variable renewables (wind, solar and wave energy) will have reached substantial shares in several parts of Europe, thereby strongly influencing power markets.
  2. The decade 2020-30 will remain a period of intense transition, during which further substantial increase in renewable generation capacity will be needed. An important part of this additional renewable capacity will consist of variable renewables.
  3. By 2020, the costs of some renewable generation technologies can be expected to further decline, both in absolute terms and in comparison to fossil and nuclear alternatives, through technological improvements and economies of scale in manufacturing, deployment and in the integration of renewables in the power system.
  4. In some more advanced regions, some of these conditions are already starting to occur, and therefore some of these principles will be relevant in certain parts of Europe before 2020.

It should be noted that a 2020-30 time horizon does not address the framework needed for RES in-vestment to achieve very high shares (up to 80-100%) of renewable electricity at a European level by 2050. This may require further policies, but we do consider the policies needed towards 2030 to create the necessary foundation for that high-RES power system.